The tribe of Jushi ((Gushi) and its archaeological character

2006-02-10 14:24:06  作者:Molodin, V. I  来源:吐鲁番学网
One of distinguishing feature of Xinjiang archaeology of antiquity is represented by correlation of material and narrative sources. Due to high-developed historiographical tradition of ancient China we have the quiet rear possibility for ethno-political interpretations of archaeological cultures. Our Chinese colleagues have done the great work in order to determine the sites of Xiongnu, Yuezhi, Saka, Wusun etc. By this report we’d like to draw attention to activity of one more tribe of Western region, namely, Jushi, because its history hasn’t been sufficiently studied yet. Using the phonetical reconstructions of B. Karlgren, Russian scholar S. Kuchera has shown that in the Past the form “Jushi” practically was an allophone of another well-known name “Gushi”.


Sima Qian in his “Historical Records” (“Shi ji”) three times pointed out the location of Gushi near Lop-nor, on the road between Shanshan and Yutian. Russian scholar L. Borovkova suppose this fact indicates that Jushi (Cheshi) of Turfan and Gushi of Lop-nor were different tribes, because it’s “impossible to imagine” the existence of such a big state that had never been, she said, in the history of Western region at ancient period. But to our opinion, the term “Gushi” (Jushi) refers to nomadic ethno-political unity that could take under its power vast territories including small oasis states.


According to “The History of Early Han Dynasty” (“Han shu”), the main centre of Jushi tribe (state) was Turfan and its neighboring territories. So, many specialists consider the burials of Subashi (dated as V – III centuries BC) to be the remains of this people. By its finds the site of Subashi (Subeixi) is connected with another site of Alagou (dated as III century BC – I century AD). The continuation of this tradition we can see among the finds of some later sites, such as Niya, Loulan, Zahunluk (third period) and Yingpan, dated from I to IV centuries AD. First of all, the similarity can be traced in every day’s clothes and utensils and also in conservative burial rites, though the objects of prestige consuming because of intensive trade exchange with outer world differ very much.


This unity can be also enlarged into bigger system of cultural-historical ties. The finds from Alagou are similar with those from Issyk and Pazyryk barrows, so they are supposed to belong to entire ethno-cultural group of tribes. The similarities are obvious among those parts of material culture which have ethnographical significance, such as ceramic and wooden ware, garments and shoes, ornaments, head-dressing, skin-painting and tattoos.


Some of Pazyryk-like elements can be traced at the Xinjiang burial yards of the later period (Sampula, Yingpan). F. e., graves at Yingpan often were marked by short sticks at the surface – as well as some Pazyryk barrows (Maltalu-4, Ak-Alakha). Among the common features are the Eastern orientation of burials and the shape of some coffins (s. c. boat-shaped).


So, we propose to connect all these relics with ethno-cultural (and political) unity known from Chinese chronicles as Jushi (Gushi), at the different stages of its development


关于 |Jushi|  的文章